Reference: McGhee K.K. & J.S. Gillespie (2006). Impact of a Smoothness Incentive/Disincentive on Hot-Mix Asphalt Maintenance Resurfacing Costs.
The smoother the pavement, the lower a vehicle’s fuel consumption.
Smoother roads can reduce annual vehicle fuel consumption by about 7 billion gallons – Smoothness Matters. Asphalt Pavement Alliance. APA 2011.